Caibidil a Trí Déag 

Syntax of the Verbal Noun (Comhréir an Ainm Bhriathartha)

Used as the Infinitive:
the progressive
  without object
  with following object (noun)
  with object (pronoun)
  with object (further verbal noun)
  with leading object
  progressive tense in the relative clause
  progressive tense with go/nach-subordinating clause
  progressive tense in only-clauses
  passivee-progressive tense
  perfect tense-progressive tense
  progressive tense of stative verbs
infinitive constructions
  with /without object
  with go/nach-subordinating clause
  with subject
  infinitive construction of a goal
intentional form
Expressions of synchronicity- / plusquam perfect, etc.
  other uses of the dative of the agent
verbal noun as an attribute
further clauses with the verbal noun
  with le, with chun
  with gan
  with ar, with tar éis
  with agus, ach
  with/after other prepositions
genitive in verbal noun constructions
  genitive following genitive prepositions
  genitive of a noun after the verbal noun
  genitive of a noun preceding the verbal noun
  genitive form of the verbal noun
Used as a Noun:
Usage als regular noun

When using the Irish verbal noun, one must differentiate between the "infinitive" usage (like the German/English infinitive) and the "substantive" usage (the gerund).

Used as the Infinitive:

The Progressive (an fhoirm leanúnach)

The progressive tense describes actions that are currently taking place, just like the English "continuous"-forms.
Colloquially, the present progressive tense is also used in place of the acutal present (the actual present appears colloquially only as habitual present, similar to English)

The Irish progressive tense is made with the auxilliary verb (= to be) and a preposition. The preposition is mostly ag = at, on,but in certain cases also do = for or a = to.
With this respect, it is quite similar to colloquial German ("Ich bin beim Lesen,Ich bin am Lesen") =I am reading
The preposition ag differs in its pronunciation in the usage in the progressive tense ([@] preceding a consonant, [@g] preceding a vowel) from its other uses (otherwise [eg]).
Prepositions like ag and do require the dative. The verbal noun is also formally in the dative. Special dative forms are generally and especially with verbal nouns rather uncommon.

Other verbs in place of bí:
Instead of the verb (= to be), the verb in the progressive as a verb of sense, of movement or of beginning/ending/continuation is possible.(e.g. "I hear you coming" = Cloisim tú ag teacht,  "The came a-running" = Tagann siad ag siúil, "I started drinking" = thosaigh mé ag ól)
In Ulster, often adh/a dh' preceding a vowel or a' preceding a consonant (with lenition) with other verbs than bí instead of ag is to be heard: thosnaigh mé a dh'ól =I began to drink

The verb may take on any tense. It is so that one can form a progressive tense present, preterite, future etc. To read more about the specifics of the meaning of the simple and habitual present of bí see tenses: progressive tense.
progressive tense present: Tá mé ag léamh = I am reading (now),
progressive tense habit. present: Bíonn mé ag léamh = I read (normally),
progressive tense preterite: Bhí mé ag léamh =I read (just now),
progressive tense future: Beidh mé ag léamh =I will (soon) read, etc.

progressive tense without object
form of + subject + ag + VN
Tá mé ag léamh = I am reading ("am I at reading") 

progressive tense with a following noun-object

A following direct object is mostly (see below) in the genitive.
form of + subject + ag + VN + genitive-object 
Tá mé ag léamh an nuachtáin = I am reading the paper ("am I at reading the paper")

Tá tú ag feiceáil an fhir = You see the man (lit.:"you are at seeing the man")
Feicim an fear ag teacht =I see the man coming ("I see the man at coming")
Tagaim ag foghlaim Gearmáinise = I am coming to learn German ("I come at learning [of] German")

progressive tense with a pronominal object

This form doesn't resemble any German form.

form of + subject + do + possessive pronoun + VN
Tá tú do mo bhualadh = You are hitting me ("are you to my hitting")

But: instead of (do + a) one uses á not (the regular combination of do + a)
Tá tú do mo bhualadh = You are hitting me.
Tá mé do do bhualadh = I am hitting you.
Tá tú á bhualadh = You are hitting him.
Tá tú á bualadh = You are hitting her.
Tá tú dár mbualadh = You are hitting us.
Tá mé do bhur mbualadh = I am hitting you(pl).
Tá tú á mbualadh = You are hitting them (pl).

Orally, other forms are possible (not with do but also here with ag or without a preposition)

If the possessive pronoun refers to the subject, one speaks of the passive-progressive tense.
e.g. Tá an teach á thóigeáil = The house is being built. (lit.: "is the house at-his building")
These clauses are often double entendres and only discernable in context:
Tá sé á dhíol = He sells it (active, sé not the same as á) or
Tá sé á dhíol = It is being sold(passive, sé = á)

If the possessive pronoun refers to the subject but the reflexive pronoun féin is present, one speaks of the reflexive progressive tense
Tá sí á bualadh féin = She's hitting herself. (lit.: "is she at-her hitting self")

This form is also used with the demonstrative pronoun (seo, sin, siúd), which then appears in addition to the possessive pronoun.
Depending on what the demonstrativum refers to, á lenites or doesn't, or requires eclipsis.
e.g.: Tá tú á ndéanamh seo = You are doing these (= these things: plural, so eclipsis follows á). (lit.: "are you to-their doing these")
Tá tú á dhéanamh seo = You are doing this (this one thing: singular masc., so lenition follows á)

reflexive progressive tense (foirm leanúnach athfhillteach)

To make a statement like "He's hitting himself" , one needs besides the antecedent possessive pronoun also the reflexive pronoun (forainm athfhillteach) féin = self.

Tá sé á bhualadh féin = He's hitting himself.
Tá mé do mo bhualadh féin = I'm hitting myself.
Tá siad á mbualadh féin = They're hitting themselves.

progressive tense with a further verbal noun as the object

The second verbal noun is not, as perhaps feared, in the genitive,
(wrong would be e.g.: *Tá mé ag iarradh fhiafraithe = *"I am at the attempt to ask")
Instead (as in German) an "infinitive with to " (see below) is added.
form of + subject + ag + VN + a + VN 
Tá mé ag iarraidh a fhiafraí. = I am trying to ask

progressive tense, if an object is preceding

To stress the object, the direct object can precede the clause. Then, it precedes the verbal noun, is separated from it and is no longer in the genitive but in the nominative/accusative
Instead of the preposition ag then always a (with lenition!).
For this, the following possibilites:

1. The rest of the clause follows unchanged (so not in the form of a relative clause). This is possible with negativeen clauses.
object + form of + subject + a + VN 
Pingin ní raibh mé a shaorú = Not a penny I've earned 

2. in a relative clause.(copula + object preceding as the antecedent)
Is + object (antecedent) + a + relative form of + subject + a + VN 
(Is é) an obair atá Pól a dhéanamh = The work is done by Paul.

progressive tense in the relative clause

1. direct object as the antecedent

Instead of ag , a is used with lenition des VN.
This entspricht the aforementioned form for emphasis of the object, relative clauses can become necessary without a special choice of emphasis, this is always the case in interrogative clauses.

object (antecedent) + a + relative form of + subject + a + VN 
Is maith liom an obair atá an fear a dhéanamh. = I like the work, that the man does. 
Cad atá tú a dhéanamh? = What are you doing (right now)? 

2. subject or other terms as the antecedent

In this case the construction does not change, it remains ag standing.

subject (antecedent) + a + relative form of + ag + VN  + genitive-object
Nach maith an fear atá ag déanamh na hoibre? = Is the man not good, that does the work? 
Cé atá ag damhsa ansin? = Who is dancing there? 

progressive tense with a go/nach-subordinating clause

Within such a subordinating clause, there are no specifics to the usage of the progressive tense (go bhfuil sé ag déanamh na hoibre = that he is doing the work).
By using a go/nach-subordinating clause as the object of the progressive tense in the main clause one must note the following:
In Munster, there comes a combination into play of do/ag with the possessive pronoun a ( = his), also á (ag/do + a) instead of ag, similar to the progressive tense with a pronominal object . (á is a proleptic pronoun, that shifts the subordinating clause)
Outside of Munster one just uses ag without such a pronoun.

Munster: form of + subject + á + VN + go...
  Tá mé á rá go bhfuil tú sásta = I say, that you are satisfied. (lit.: "Am I at seinem saying, that ...")
Connacht/Ulster: form of + subject + ag + VN + go...
  Tá mé ag rá go bhfuil tú sásta = I say, that you are satisfied. (lit.: "Am I at saying, that ...")

progressive tense, in "only"-clauses (foirm leanúnach leathdhiúltach)

In Irish, there is no one word only like in German or English.
Instead, the clause is negated and ach (= but ) is added to the part of the clause, that is meant ("only me", "only in the paper" etc.). This is why one calls such a clause a "seminegated clause" (irish "leathdhiúltach")

When then the object comes after ach (disjoined from the verbal noun) one uses a instead of ag. The object is then not in the genitive but in the nominative/accusative.
neg. form of + subject + a + VN + ach + object 
Níl mé a léamh ach an nuachtán = I'm only reading the paper (right now) ("not-I am at reading but the paper")

progressive tense passive (foirm leanúnach chéasta)

This form looks the same as the progressive tense with a pronominal object ,  but here the possessive pronoun is always referring to the subject.
form of + subject + do + possessive pronoun + VN
Tá an teach á thóigeáil = The house wird gerade gebaut ( "is the house at his building")

These clauses are often double entendres:
Tá sé á dhíol = He's selling it (active) or It's for sale (passive)

An agent may be added with ag (making the passive clear)
Tá an teach á thóigeáil agam = The house is being built by me.

Here, the subject can even lead (similar to leading object see above)
Pingin ní raibh á shaorú agam = Not a penny was earned by me.
Nach deas an teach atá á thóigeáil agam? = Isn't the house nice, that is being built by me?

progressive perfect tense (foirm leanúnach fhoirfe)

Instead of tar éis also d'éis or i ndiaidh
form of + subject + tar éis + bheith + ag + VN + genitive-object 
Tá mé tar éis bheith ag léamh an nuachtáin = I just read the paper ("am I after being at reading the paper")

Also similar is the construction of a perfect tense without the progressive tense (then without bheith ag, the verbal noun forms then an infinitive construction, see there)

progressive tense of state-of-being verbs

Some verbs do not use the form with ag but instead the preposition i (= in) with the possessive pronoun.
The possessive pronoun refers to the subject.
form of + subject + i + possessive pronoun + VN
Tá mé i mo chónaí i mBéal Feirste  = I live in Belfast. ("am I in my living in Belfast")

These verbs do not describe active actions but a state of being, in which one finds oneself.
These are the following verbal nouns:

This form is the common usage of these verbs.
forms like cónaíonn sé = he lives are quite uncommon.
Tá sé ag seasamh means: He's going to stand (somewhere).

For cónaí, the following form is (in Munster) also possible: Tá cónaí orm = I am living ("is living on me") instead of Tá mé i mo chónaí

infinitive constructions (frásaí ainm briathartha)

Besides the progressive tense, there are still many possibilities to use the verbal noun.
In German this is often an "infinitive with to", and that is why we want to use the term  "infinitive construction".
(In Irish, there is no infinitive. Instead, the verbal noun is used , hence the Irish term "verbal nominal phrase")
sometimes in German, one would prefer other forms in place of an infinitive construction (subordinating clause)

infinitive construction with and without an object

without an object :

This form is equivalent to the German "simple infinitive with to"
Only that here in Irish, the preposition "to" isn't used. It is negated with gan ("without"). Gan doesn't lenite here.
affirmative  VN Tá mé sásta siúl. = I am ready to walk
negative  gan + VN Tá mé sásta gan siúl. = I agree, not to walk

verbal noun of transit (coming, going, etc.) use mostly the preposition a (= to; requires lenition)
e.g.: Tá mé sásta a theacht = I agree to come.

with a direct object

This form is equivalent to the German "extended infinitive with to"
The object is always in the nominative preceding the verbal noun (no genitive like the objects in the progressive tense)
Between object and verbal noun, the preposition a (= to) is used.
a requires lenition of the verbal noun!

affirmative  object + a + VN   Tá mé sásta míle a shiúil = I am happy to walk a mile
negative  gan + object + a + VN   Tá mé sásta gan míle a shiúil = I am happy, not to walk a mile

If a pronoun (personal pronoun or demonstrative pronoun) is the object, nothing changes in the clause form, the pronoun simply comes before the preposition a.

Tá mé sásta iad a dhíol = I agree to sell them.
Tá mé sásta gan iad a dhíol = I agree not to sell them.
It is possible (today rarer) also to use the possessive pronoun (then without the preposition a)

Tá mé sásta a ndíol = I agree to sell them.
Tá mé sásta gan a ndíol = I agree not to sell them.

with an indirect object

Just the opposite as in German, the indirect object in Irish is always following the verbal noun. The preposition a = to is not used. Indirect objects are dative objects, in Irish always introduced with a preposition (in German also dative without preposition)

affirmative  VN + prep. + indir. object   Tá áthas orm siúil le Máire = I am happy to walk with Máire
negative  gan + VN + prep. + indir. object   Tá áthas orm gan siúil le Pól = I am happy not to walk with Pól

Of course, both direct and indirect objects may be incorporated:
Tá áthas orm an leabhar seo a thabhairt do Mháire. = I am happy to give this book to Máire.

Usage of the infinitive construction with or without an object

The possibility of usage is only partially equivalent to the German "infinitive with to"
It appears in clauses with

infinitive construction with go-subordinating clause

a + VN + go/nach-subordinating clause   Ba mhaith liom a fheiceáil go bhfuil tú sásta = I would like to see, that you are happy 

This a is not the preposition a (= "to") as above!
This a is moreso a possessive pronoun (3rd pers. sg. masc. "his"). It shifts the following go-subordinating clause.
(Ba mhaith liom a fheiceáil go bhfuil tú sásta = lit. "would be good with me his seeing, that are you happy")
In English it is equivalent to the pronoun  "it" in: "I would like to see it , that you are happy"

infinitive construction with subject

The German "infinitive with to"  can only have an object.
The Irish form can also either in place of that or additionally contain a subject
A lit. translation is therefore hardly possible, as it would necessitate a that-subordinating clause in the translation.
A negation is done with gan

subject + (a)* + VN  tú a fhanacht = that you wait ("you to wait")
subject + a + VN + genitive-object  a mhac a fháil báis = that his son is dying ("his son to receive death")
subject + do + possessive pronoun + VN   Dia dár sábháil = that God save us ("God to our saving")
subject + object + a + VN  a mhac bás a fháil = that his son is dying("his son death to receive")

*): In Ulster, in the case of an intransitive usage, (only subject and verbal noun, without object ) no preposition a is used: Ba mhaith liom tú fanacht = I would like, that you wait
genitive-objects are (except in set phrases like fáil báis = to die) most common in Munster.

Special form: Logical subject with prepositions


Omission of bheith

The verbal noun of bí (bheith = to be) is often omitted completely:
Is mór an trua gan é (a bheith) anseo = It's a pity, that he is not here. (lit.: "is great the pity without him (to be) here")
Tóg uaim é agus gan (bheith) uaim ach é = Take it from me, that's only what I want.

infinitive construction of a goal

This form is equivalent to the infinitive with "in order to".
 le + object + a + VN  le gloine a ól = in order to drink a glass
 chun + object + a + VN  chun gloine a ól = in order to drink a glass
 ag / a + VN + genitive-object  ag ól gloine = in order to drink a glass
 do + possessive pronoun + VN  á ól = in order to drink it

In Connacht, le prefixes an n- to a word beginning with a vowel (e.g.: le n-ól = in order to drink, le n-uisce a ól = in order to drink water), although no eclipsis occurs after le! (Standard: le hól = in order to drink)
An object after chun is mostly not in the genitive (see below)

A pronoun as the object connects not with le and chun to form prepositional pronouns like leis or chuige. It remains separate after le and chun:
le hé (le n-é) a dhéanamh / chun é a dhéanamh = in order to do it.
(This is not only for le and chun, but for all infinitive constructions following a preposition).
Alternatively, following le, the possessive pronoun appears with the VN, following chun the possessive pronoun with the genitive of the VN:
lena dhéanamh, chun a dhéanta = in order to do it

le usually appears with the verb , chun with other verbs.
Táim anseo le n-ól. = I am here in order to drink.
Tháinig mé anseo chun ól. = I came here to drink.
Chun and le occur mainly this way in Munster, as le is more common in Connacht and Donegal.

The forms with ag / a / do are used mainly following verbs/transitive expressions
They are actually progressive tenses, according to the structure
e.g.: Tagaim ag foghlaim Gaeilge = I come, in order to learn Irish. D'imigh mé do do bhualadh = I left, in order to hit you. Tháinig mé anseo ag ól. = I came here to drink.

In Ulster, at least orally, rather an altered form and not ag is used ("a'" preceding a consonant,"adh" preceding a vowel, "a dh'" in written form), that causes lenition (historically a form of do instead of ag):
e.g.: tigeann tú a dh'fhoghlaim Gaeilic = You come to learn Irish, tig sé a'cheannach báid = He comes to buy a boat. (Standard: Tagann tú ag foghlaim Gailge, tagann sé ag ceannach báid)

do (shortened to a) is also used outside of Ulster in all of Ireland in the expression dul a chodladh = to go to sleep ("to go in order to sleep").

Note: The forms with the verb (bí + subj. + le + VN or. bí + subj. + chun + VN) have various meanings  (see below)

The intentional (an fhoirm thimchainteach aidhme)

The form "bí ag dul ag" resembles the English "be going to"
form of + subject + ar tí + object + a + VN
form of + subject + ag dul ag + VN + genitive-object

instead of   ar tí  also chun, ag brath or ar hob
If within a definite time span, then only chun, ag brath, le

Tá sé chun carr nua a cheannach amárach = He's going to to buy a car tomorrow.
Tá sé ag brath an teach a cheannach = He's going to buy a house.
Tá mé ag dúl ag foghlaim Gaeilge =I'm going to learn Irish.

Expressions of synchronicity / the plusquam perfect

The important thing to note in these expressions is a logical subject in the form of the combination of do + agent
It is almost a sort of "dative subject", which is a bit unusual.
This is also common in other languages, e.g. in Latin: dative of the agent, dativus auctoris (an tabharthach gníomhach).
A real, grammatical (nominative-)subject is missing. (for more details see also subjectlessness) Different to other subjectless forms these expressions are oly possible as a subordinating clause or. adverbiale.
In such constructions, the verbal noun functions in place of the participle, they are in this sense comparable to the participle constructions on other languages (comp. dt. "Ein glass trinkend, ...",= "Drinking a glass,..." "Gerade ausgetrunken habend, ..." = "Just having finished drinking,...")

synchronicity of the verbal noun ("while")
le linn + object + a + VN + do + agent le linn gloine a ól dom = as I drink a glass
le linn + VN + genitive-object + do + agent le linn ól na gloine duit = as you drink the glass
ag + VN + genitive-object + do + agent ag ól na gloine duit = as you the drink glass
do + possessive pronoun + VN + do + agent  á ól dom = as I drink it

plusquam perfect of the verbal noun ("after")
tar éis + object + a + VN + do + agent tar éis gloine a ól dom = after I had drunk a glass  
tar éis + VN + genitive-object + do + agent tar éis ól gloine dom = after I had drunk a glass
ar + VN + genitive-object + do + agent ar ól gloine dom = after I had drunk a glass
ar + possessive pronoun + VN + do + agent arna ól dom = after I had drunk it

Instead of tar éis also d'éis, i ndiaidh
ar forms arna the with possessive pronoun of the 3rd person a
Originally, not ar but iar ( = nach) was used, iar would eclipse (iar dteacht dom = after I came) iar was shortened to ar, and after ar then lenition (ar theacht dom)
Ar is, in this usage rather archaic and colloquially completely replaced with tar éis/i ndiaidh.

arna appears with the verbal noun also without do + subject as the perfect tense-passive construction (see below under ar)

succession of the verbal noun ("before")
roimh + object + a + VN + do + agent   roimh gloine a ól dom = before I had drunk a glass

Other Uses of the dative of the agent

The combination of do + agent is aside from the above uses also encountered in other clauses and has even its own clause-forming possibility. It was often used,at least in Old Irish.

Dóbair dom titim = I had almost fallen ("almost-happened to-me falling")
Sa chomhrá dúinn = In the course of our conversation, ("in the conversation to-us")

verbal noun as an attribute

This is one of those forms, in which the genitive of a verbal noun can occur.
The verbal noun as the attribute often comes close to our present-participle, if it is used attributively. (e.g.: the story-telling man)
Often it is the case that also a translation makes more sense as one word (e.g.: storyteller) or with a subordinating clause (the man, who tells a story).
One such a verbal noun-attribute must also be translated as an "infinitive with to" :
(e.g.: Tháinig mian a mbuailte ormsa = a desire to hit her overcame me. lit.: "came desure her hitting on-me")

noun + genitive-object + a + VN  fear scéil a insint = the story-telling man 
noun + genitive-VN + genitive-object   fear inste scéil = the story-telling man
noun + possessive pronoun + genitive-VN   fear a inste = the man telling it

The first two forms are lexically equivalent.
With a pronomial object, only the 3rd form is possible.

further examples:
lucht foghlamtha na Gaeilge = die Irisch-Lernenden ("Irisch learning people" lit.: "people [of the] learning of Irish") bzw. lucht na Gaeilge a fhoghlaim (lit.: "people of the Irish to learn")
fear díolta na leabhair = the bookseller ("man [of the ] selling of books")
cailín deas crúite na mbó = the nice cow-milking girl ("girl nice [of the] milking of the cows")

Depending on the genitive-form of the verbal noun used, there are some differences (either noun-based genitive or verbal adjective as the genitive form). More on this here

further clauses with the verbal noun

With various prepositions certain expressions can be made.
In form, they resemble the progressive tense (bí + preposition + verbal noun)
Besides the here mentioned expressions, there are also others.

with the preposition le

form of + subject + le + VN   Tá an balla seo le péinteáil = This wall is to be painted. 

This clauseform wird verwendet, to express purpose, intention, duty, necessity, possibility, guarantee.
Often, this clause form has a passive character, an agent can then be added with ag
Then this clause form correlates to the German/English"es soll ..." = "it should be..." or. "es is zu ..." = "it is to be..."

further examples:

Cad a bheidh agat le n-ól? = What do you want to drink? (" what will you have to drink?")(intention)
Tá sí lena theacht  = She is going to come / She is planning to come (intention)
Tá obair le déanamh agam = I have work to do (duty)
Tá an balla seo le péinteáil = This wall is to be painted.(necessity)
Níl le feiceáil ach an fharraige = Nothing is to be seen but the sea (possibility)
Is dócha atá sé le theacht = Surely he is coming (guarantee)

with the preposition chun

form of + subject + chun + VN   Tá an balla seo chun péinteáil = This wall is ready to be painted. 

This form expresses that someone / something is finished, ready, prepared for an action.
It conveys more as the intentional form (see above)
It may also be passive.

further examples:
Tá an fómhar chun tarlú = The harvest can be brought in.
Tá Pól chun iascaigh = Paul is ready to go fishing

with the preposition gan

form of + subject + gan + VN   Tá an balla seo gan phéinteáil = This wall is not painted. 

This form expresses that something is not done, or, that someone hasn't done something.

further examples:
Is fada a bhí sí gan teacht = She hasn't come in a long time.

with the preposition ar

1. the real preposition ar

form of + subject + ar + VN   Tá an balla seo ar péinteáil = This wall is painted. 

This form expresses the status following an action (perfect, passive) or of a continuous state(present, passive). ar does not lenite here.

further examples:
Tá sé ar oscailt = It's open.
Tá an teanga seo ar labhairt anois = This language is spoken now.
Tá an leabhar ar fáil anseo = The book is available here.

2. The preposition iar > ar

with do + subject see above: plusquamperfect of the verbal noun
Often, ar (shortened from iar) occurs, but also with the possessive pronoun a (ar + a: arna) without do+subject to express a perfect tense passive participle:
arna chur i n-eagar ag = distributed by
arna fhoilsiú ag = published by
arna chur i mbuidéil ag = bottled by

with the prepositions tar éis, i ndiaidh, d'éis

form of + subject + tar éis + object + a + VN   Tá mé tar éis an balla seo a phéinteáil. = I have just painted this wall. 

Instead of tar éis also d'éis, i ndiaidh
This form demonstrates a perfect tense-construction.
The direct completion of the action is stressed.
The clause term tar éis + object + a + VN acts as an infinitive construction.
(lit. translation: "I am after painting the wall")
Comp. also perfect tense-progressive

with the conjunctions agus, ach

Verbal noun constructions often follow agus (= and ) and ach (= but ). See under conjunctions: agus.
This was also mentioned earlier. Similarly,the infinitive construction can follow murach (= 'if it were not so') and the presposition used as a conjunction tar éis (= 'after').
As opposed to these, agus and ach have here special meanings as conditional conjunctions (= "in case of", "seein that", "provided, that").
An infinitive construction may only be replaced by one go-subordinating clause.

with other prepositions

thar:  "more than" .: Tá sé thar a bheith maith = It is more than good
ó: "from": Tá mé tuirseach ó bheith ag siúil = I am tired from walking
trí: "in which": tríd an rud seo a dhéanamh = In which this thing is done.
ar feadh: "as soon as": ar feadh mé a bheith ann = sobaldI da bin
With many verbs, prepositions are inseparable in certain meanings : e.g. tabhair faoi = to attempt.
An infinitive construction may directly follow the preposition, without that the preposition belongs to the infinitive construction: Thug mé faoi é a dhéanamh =I tried to do it (lit.: Gave I under, it to do)

genitive in verbal noun-constructions

genitive of the verbal noun following genitive-prepositions

chun, ar tí, i ndiaidh, le linn and other prepositions actually require the genitive.
Although, in verbal noun-constructions the following is true:

genitive of a noun after the verbal noun genitive of a noun before the verbal noun genitive form of the verbal noun

Used as a Noun

Usage as a regular noun

The above uses of the verbal nouns replace (approximately) infinitive ("infinitive usage")
There, an action is always (gníomh) somehow delegated to an agent (gníomhaí) and /or it occurs in relation to an object (cuspóir).

The verbal noun can also be used as a regular noun, ("substantive usage").
Then it mostly occurs without reference to an agent and without an object of the action(but a genitive-attribute is possible)
Tá (an) léamh go suimiúil = (The) Reading is interesting.
Fuair mé orduithe uaidh = I received orders from him.

The verbal noun may also have the meaning of a comparable German noun of -ung, e.g.: neartú = verstärkung =support
Often it not only has an abstract meaning, describing an action, but also a conrete meaning, like the result of an action, e.g.: crochadh = hanging/suspension, ordú = order/command

One can recognise if it is a case of usage as a regular noun by the following:

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(C) Lars Braesicke 2000

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