Caibidil a Cúig: Prepositions (Réamhfhocail)

do = to, for

In Connacht, do is pronounced [g@], as if it were written go, but it differs from the homophonous preposition go in that lenition follows (go doesn't lenite).
In Munster, de and do are interchangeable.


do requires the dative

Initial Mutations after do

do preceding a vowel and fh


Combined with the article

Combined with personal pronouns and possessivr pronouns

- general contrast form translation possessive pron translation
I dom domhsa to me do mo (dom) to my
you duit duitse to dir do do (dod) to your
he dósan to him to his
she di dise to her to her
we dúinn dúinne to us dár to our
you(pl) daoibh daoibhse to you do bhur to your
they dóibh dóibhsean to them to their

The forms often occur lenited, esp. after vowels and slender consonants (dhom instead of dom, dhá instead of etc.),
in Conamara also the short forms('om, 'uit, 'ó, 'i, 'úinne, 'aoibh, 'óibh)
in Ulster domh or damh instead of dom, dona instead of .
in Munster dom and dod (instead of do mo and do do)
As the object of a verbal noun, á instead of

Combined with the indir. relative particle and with the indir. relative form of the copula

tense relative part.
(do + a/ar)
copular form
(do + ar)
copular form
preceding a vowel
present dar darb to it
preterite dar dar darbh to it


  1. indirect dative-object: like the German dative without a preposition (for general "benefit" of a person/thing of an action): scríobh mé leitir dhuit =  I wrote you a letter , but if the spatial goal is in the foreground: scriobh leitir chugat (see chuig)
  2. in certain verbal noun constructions preceding the subject ("dative subject"), e.g.: thar éis + verbal noun+ do + subject = afterwards.
  3. in copular clauses with adjectives: is breá do = it is nice for...,  ar leor do = it is enough for..., ní gá dhuit = it is not necessary for you, is fiú (do...) = it's worth it (for...) ,is fíor do = to be right,
    also as a substitute for modals:
    must: b'éigean do... (lit.: it would be necessary for )
    should: is ceart do... (lit.: it would be right for )
  4. do + possesive pronoun in the progressive as a substitute of the personal pronoun: as the object. e.g.: Tá mé do do bhualadh = I'm hitting you
  5. in Munster, partially still in place of the short form a in infinitive constructions with the verbal noun ("infinitive with to") e.g.: chun Gaeilge d'fhoghlaim = in order to learn Irish
  6. time of day : with an indep. number (with the article): a ceathrú don trí = quarter to three (also chun)
  7. with certain verbs: inis do...= tell someone, tabhair do...=give someone, lig do = leave someone, taspeáin do...= show someone

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