Caibidil a Cúig: Prepositions (Réamhfhocail)
do = to, for
In Connacht, do is pronounced [g@], as if it were written go, but it differs from the homophonous preposition go in that lenition follows (go doesn't lenite).
In Munster, de and do are interchangeable.
do requires the dative
Initial Mutations after do
without the article: lenition e.g. do Sheán= to Séan
with the singular article: lenition e.g. dón mháthair
= to mother (in Dingle sometimes eclipsis)
with the singular article after s: t-prefix e.g.: dón tsagart = to the priest
do preceding a vowel and fh
do becomes: d' e.g. d'Úna = to Úna, d'fhear = for a man (form is the same as the preposition de!)
Cé/cad dó = to whom, where to, why, whom?
Combined with the article
do + an: don
do + na: do na (also dos na, dosna)
Combined with personal pronouns and possessivr pronouns
||do mo (dom)
||do do (dod)
The forms often occur lenited, esp. after vowels and slender consonants (dhom instead of dom, dhá instead of dá etc.),
in Conamara also the short forms('om, 'uit, 'ó, 'i, 'úinne, 'aoibh, 'óibh)
in Ulster domh or damh instead of dom, dona instead of dá.
in Munster dom and
dod (instead of do mo and do do)
As the object of a verbal noun, á instead of dá
Combined with the indir. relative particle and with the indir. relative form of the copula
(do + a/ar)
(do + ar)
preceding a vowel
- indirect dative-object: like the German dative without a preposition (for general "benefit" of a person/thing of an action): scríobh mé leitir dhuit = I wrote you a letter , but if the spatial goal is in the foreground: scriobh leitir chugat (see chuig)
- in certain verbal noun constructions preceding the subject ("dative subject"), e.g.: thar éis + verbal noun+ do + subject = afterwards.
- in copular clauses with adjectives: is breá do = it is nice for..., ar leor do = it is enough for..., ní gá dhuit = it is not necessary for you, is fiú (do...) = it's worth it (for...) ,is fíor do = to be right,
also as a substitute for modals:
must: b'éigean do... (lit.: it would be necessary for )
should: is ceart do... (lit.: it would be right for )
- do + possesive pronoun in the progressive as a substitute of the personal pronoun: as the object. e.g.: Tá mé do do bhualadh = I'm hitting you
- in Munster, partially still in place of the short form a in infinitive constructions with the verbal noun ("infinitive with to") e.g.: chun Gaeilge d'fhoghlaim = in order to learn Irish
- time of day : with an indep. number (with the article):
a ceathrú don trí = quarter to three (also chun)
- with certain verbs: inis do...= tell someone, tabhair do...=give someone, lig do = leave someone, taspeáin do...= show someone
Gramadach na Gaeilge