Caibidil a Cúig: Prepositions (Réamhfhocail)

i = in

The pronunciation of i is not [i] but a short [@], as if it were written a (and so it is in older literature)


i requires the dative or the accusative, but without the differentiation in location and movement as in German

Initial Mutations after i


i becomes in

Combined with the article

"sa/san/sna" stem from the older form ins an / ins na (these forms are most prevalent in Ulster, comp. Scottish anns an)

Combined with personal pronouns and possessive pronouns

- general contrast form translation possessive pron. translation
I ionam ionamsa in me i mo (im) in my
you ionat ionatsa in you i do (id)  in your
he ann annsan in him ina in his
she inti intise in her ina in her
we ionainn ionainne in us inár in our
you(pl) ionaibh ionaibhse in you in bhur in your
they iontu iontusan in them ina in their

Forms like ina, inár are spoken like 'na, 'nár (this is always so after a vowel, but often generally so). This is why one often sees it written that way as well.

Combined with the indirect relative particle and with the indir. relative form of the copula

tense relative part.
(i + a/ar)
copular form
(i + ar)
copular form preceding a vowel translation
present ina inar inarb in his/in her/in its
preterite inar inar inarbh in his/in her/in its


  1. spatial: location in a room (as dt. in): sa bpota = the the pot
  2. spatial-relative: in /am: in íochtar na tíre = in the lower part of the land, i mbun = on the ground, in imeall = on the sidelines
  3. temporal: in: san oíche = in the night
  4. regarding: in: briste sa lár = broken through the middle, bán sa ghruaig = blonde("white in the hair ")
  5. quality: in: an "intrinsic" quality: maith i leabhar = good in a book, sláinte sa ngrian = healing power of the sun   (with subst. adjectives)
  6. condition: in: i bpian = in pain, i imní = in fear
  7. condition: (in a state of...): (tá + subj.) + i + possessive pron. + object : tá sé ina phraiseach = it is in disarray ("it is in its disorder ")
    similarly also:
  8. membership: in: sna Gardaí = with the police(force), i mbanna = in the band
  9. in ann + VN = capable of (also: i gcumas, in acmhainn)
  10. pro (with an article): deich bpunt sa lá = 10 pounds a day
  11. for: fear san fhear = man for man
  12. with verbs : glaoi in ainm = to call by name

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© Lars Braesicke 1999 / 2000

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