Caibidil a Cúig: Prepositions (Réamhfhocail)

ag = at, by

Although written as ag, the preposition is mostly spoken as [eg'] (as if it were written aig or eig)
(In use in the progressive of verbs it is them pronounced [@] , or [@g] or [@g'] preceding a vowel. After a vowel, it is mostly muted.)
Except in the progressive, aige is used in Munster instead of ag (there also combinations with the article: aigen = ag an, aigesna = ag na)


ag requires the dative.

Initial Mutations:


Combined with the personal pronoun (so-called. prepositional pronoun):

- general contrast form translation
I agam agamsa at me
you agat agatsa at you
he aige aigesean at him
she aici aicise at her
we againn againne at us
you(pl) agaibh agaibhse at you
they acu acusan at them

Occasionally (Connemara) one finds short forms ('am /'amsa, 'ad / 'adsa, 'ainn / 'ainne instead of agam/agamsa, agat/agatsa, againn/againne.
Because Munster the form aige (ending in a vowel) is used, there also combinations with the possessive pronoun occur (aigena, aigenár = at his, at our, etc.)


  1. spatial location: by, at close proximity: ag an fear = at the man's
  2. temporal: at: ag a trí a chlog = at 3 O'clock
  3. with the verbal noun: progressive: tá mé ag ithe = I'm eating right now (lit.: "am I at eating ")
    (whereby here ag is more seen as the particle, which has little or nothing to do with the base meaning of the preposition)
  4. have: tá + noun + ag...
  5. with adjectives: nice of: go deas ag...; easy for , good for, pointless for:..,difficult for...:éasca ag...,  maith ag..., trom ag, etc.
  6. part of (in the partitive dative instead of the more common preposition de): many, some, an amount of them: go leor acu,  roinnt acu,  neart acu, neart ag tithe = a bunch of houses (but mostly only the 3 plural pronouns againn, agaibh, acu, with nouns more often de instead of ag)
  7. as a substitute for a possessive pronoun, if a demonstrative pronoun (seo, sin) appears: an teach sin 'amsa = this my house
    or if with the superlative: mac is sine atá agam = my oldest son
  8. denoting the agent: adjective + ag: tinn ag an ngrian = sick from the sun, tá tinneas cinn orm aige = I have a headachebecause of him
  9. ag seo, ag sin = here is, there is....
  10. tá sé ina .... acu = they see him as ....("he is a .... to them ")
  11. níl agat ach... = you just have to...
  12. with verbs: clois ag = hear from, faigh ag = receive from, fág ag = leave with,
  13. in Connacht, Ulster also as a substitute for the preposition chuig (fusion due to pronunciation: chuig > ag)

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