Caibidil a Cúig: Prepositions (Réamhfhocail)

de = of

In Munster, de and do are used one and the same


de requires the dative

Initial Mutations after de

de preceding a vowel and fh


combined with the article

combined with personal pronouns and possessive pronouns

- general contrast form translation possessive pron . translation
I díom díomsa of me de mo (dem) of my
you díot díotsa of you de do (ded) of your
he de desean of him of his
she di dise of her of her
we dínn dínne of us dár of our
you(pl) díbh díbhse of you de bhur of your
they díobh díobhsan of them of their

The pronominal forms often occur lenited, especially after vowels and slender consonants (dhíom instead of díom, dhá instead of dá, etc.)
In Connemara there are often also so-called short forms:'íot, 'íom, 'e, 'í, 'ínn, 'íbh, 'íobh
but the forms of do are also in use (dom/dhom instead of díom/dhíom)
Partially, in Munster dem and ded (dom, dod) are used instead of de mo and de do, in Ulster dena instead of .

combined with the indirect relative particle, and with the indirect relative form of the copula

tense relative particle (de + a/ar) copular form
(de + ar)

copular form preceding a vowel

present dar darb of him/of her
preterite dar dar darbh of him/of her

combined with the general relative pronoun

tense rel. pron.
(de + a/ar)
present of all that
preterite dar of all that


  1. spatial, extended distance from (similar to ó: there however the point of origin is in the foreground): titim den chathaoir = to fall off the chair; bhriseadh den chrann = to break off of a tree, stad den ól = to stay away from drinking
    to take off clothing: bain dhíot an cóta = take your coat off
  2. partitive dative (part of a whole) instead of the partitive genitive): cuid de na daoine = some of the people, triúr de na mná = three of the women , (sometimes also ag but mostly only with pers.pron plur.: go leor acu = many of you,  but: go leor dhe = lots of it!)
  3. content (following the verb líon de = fill with):
  4. appositional umbrella term : mostly in metaphor. use: e.g.: gliogar de chathaoir = a cripple of a chair, amadán de mhac = an idiot of a son
  5. material, cause, instrument : tuirseach den chaint = tired of talking, buille de mhaide = whack of a stick , íorna de shnáth = ball of yarn, rinneadh d'adhmad é = one made it out of wood
  6. sudden movement with: de léim (with a leap), de phlump (with a bang), d'arraidh amhain (in one blow) = suddenly
  7. origin of: duine den seanreacht =someone of the old regime, fear de Bhrianach = a man of the O'Briens
  8. thankfulness for someone.: buioch de
  9. often in names of anglo-norman origin (from French: de, Engl: the): de Búrca = Burke ("de Bourg"), de Buitléir = Butler ("Bouteillier, the Butler")
  10. with verbs : ceangail de = connect to, greamaigh de = tie to, líon de = fill with, lean de = continue with
  11. with directional adverbs: laistigh de = outside of, taobh thuaidh de = north(side) of
  12. with the general relative pronoun on, of : Feiceann tú a bhfuil d'fhir ann = you see what for men there are or: Feiceann tú fear bhfuil ann = you see a man of all there are
  13. with the abstract noun (in combination with a: ):

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© Lars Braesicke 1999 / 2000

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