Caibidil a Cúig: Prepositions (Réamhfhocail)

genitive prepositions (réamhfhocail ghinideacha)

These prepositions all require the genitive.
They are for the most part originally nouns (e.g. timpeall = round).
Additionally, we have the derived prepositions (or compound prepositions, réamhfhocail chomhshuite), which are comprised of a simple preposition and a noun.

chun = to, towards

see chuig
Also chun was once a noun (Old Irish VN dochum < tochim = to step towards)

trasna = through, over, across

  1. see trítrasna an garraí = through the field, across the field
  2. across: trasna na habhann = across the river, trasna an bhothair = across the road
  3. adverbial: cúig troithe trasna = 5 miles across / wide / deep (depending)
  4. adverbial: teacht trasna ar duine = to contradict someone
  5. adjectival: barra trasna = crossbeam

timpeall = around, about

  1. spatially: timpeall an tí = around the house, inár dtimpeall = around us, in our area
  2. temporally: timpeall na nollaig = around Christmas, timpeall fiche bliain = about 20 years

fearacht = like

  1. like, in the way that: fearacht an fhir seo = like this man, a fhearacht sin = just like that

tar éis = after (temp.)

also thar éis, théis, d'éis among others
A combination of the preposition tar (thar) or de and the noun éis ("path")

  1. Time: past: a ceathrú tar éis a dó = quarter past two, a leathuair tar éis a dó = a half hour past two (= half past two)
  2. tar éis + do + subject + verbal noun: afterwards... (see Syntax of the verbal noun)
  3. with VN: (tá + subj. + tar éis + VN) Expression of a recently ended action (like the perfect) Tá mé tar éis imeacht = I just left (see Syntax of the verbal noun )

cois = beside, at the foot of

cois is actually the dative of the noun cos = foot

  1. beside, at the foot of : cois cnoic = at the foot of the mountain, cois abhann = on/by the river

tigh = at

Derived from the noun teach = house,
tigh is the old dative of teach
used in names (e.g. bar names) comp. to the french chez ("chez Jean"), also used preceding personal and company names

  1. at tigh Sheáin = "at Seán's" , tigh Mhic Dhonaill = at McDonald's,
    Cheannigh mé tigh Whoolworth é = I bought it at Woolworth's

derived prepositions (réamhfhocail chomhshuite)

  1. These are comprised of simple prepositions and nouns. They are formed just as in German:
    e.g. ar nós = in a way/ like
  2. Instead of personal pronouns the possessive pronoun is used preceding the noun part
    e.g.: ar nós na daoine = in the way of the people but ar ár nos = our way (formation also as in German)
    in some dialects, with some derived prepositions, personal pronouns are used, e.g.: ar nós mé féin = in my own way
  3. Many of these are also usable (without the genitive object) as conjunctions (often with go = that)
    e.g. d'ainneoin go = despite, (that)

The table shows a selection of the most common ones:

preposition translation lit. example
with ar on - -
ar aghaidh across from /opposite "on face " ar aghaidh an dhorais = opposite the door
ar ceann an the tip/end of, in front of "on head " na daoine ar ár gceann = the people in front of us
ar chúl behind "on back side " ar chúl an tí = behind the house
ar feadh for (the extent of), the length "on stretch" ar feadh seachtaine = for a week
ar fud through way , straight through "on area " ar fud na tíre = around the country
ar nós like, as the way of "on way " ar mo nós = like me
ar s(h)on because of , for the sake of, in order to "on comfort " ar son Dé = for God's sake  
with as out - -
as ucht because of , for, to "out of breast " as ucht na tíre = for the good of the country
with de of - -
d'ainneoin despite "of unwillingness " de m'ainneoin = in spite of me
de bharr as a result of, due to "of point " de bharr báis = as a result of death
de chois in the area / close to "of foot " de chois an tí = close to the house
de réir due to, according to "of will " de réir an leabhair = due to the book
with faoi under - -
faoi cheann in (within), temp. "under head " faoi cheann seachtaine = within a week
faoi choinne (meant) for "under meeting " faoi a coinne = for her
with go until - -
go ceann  until, for (temp.) "until head " go ceann bliana = for a year
with i in - -
in aghaidh against "in face " inár n-aghaidh = against us
in aice in the vicinity of "in area " in aice na Gaillimhe = near Galway
in áit instead of "in place " i m'áit = in my place
in éadan against "in forehead " in bhur n-éadan = against you
i gcaitheamh during "in progress" i gcaitheamh oíche = during a night
i gceann at the end of "in head " i gceann an bheallaigh = at the end of the way
i gcoinne against "in meeting " i gcoinne an tsrutha = against the flow
i gcuideachta in the company of "in accompaniment " i do chuideachta = in your company
i ndiaidh after "in afterwards " i ndiaidh an scéil = after the story
i bhfianaise in view of "in witness " i bhfianaise na farraige = in view of the sea
i bhfochair (together) with "in area " in bhur bhfochair = together with you
i lár central , in the middle of "in middle " i lár an bheallaigh = in the middle of the way
i láthair in the presence of "in presence " i láthair Dé = in the presence of God
i leith for "in side " i leith na saoirse = for freedom
i measc between, in the midst of "in mix " i measc na nduine = among the people
i rith during, in the course of "in run " i rith na seachtaine = during the week
i dtaobh regarding, about "in side " i dtaobh an ruda = regarding the thing
i dteannta (together) with "in support of " i do theannta = with you
with le with - -
le haghaidh for "with face " lena aghaidh = for him
le hais compared to, next to "with axis " lena hais = next to, compared to her
le cois beside, at the foot of "with foot " le cois na habhann = on the river
le linn during "with duration " le linn na seachtaine = during the week
le teann from, out of "with power " le teann feirge = out of anger
with os over - -
os cionn above "over head " os cionn an tí = above the house
os coinne in front of, across from "beyond meeting " os mo choinne = in front of me
os comhair across from, in front of, in the presence "over location " os comhair na fuinneoige = across from the window
os mhair in front of "over last" os mhair an dhorais = at the door
with thar over (... beyond, pasti) - -
thar ceann beyond the "over head " thar ceann an ghoirt = beyond the field
thar cheann for, in place of "over head " thar mo cheann = instead of my
tar éis after (s. above) "over trail " -

In some dialects there is a trend towards simplification of derived prepositions notable through an omission of the simple preposition and further changes.
(e.g. Munster: ar feadh > feadh > fean/fan: fan na seachtaine = for the week; de réir > dréir/déir (in Connacht réir, léir): déir/léir na haimsire = appropriate for the season )

A further form of derived prepositions is comprised of 3 parts: preposition-noun-preposition
(e.g. in aice le = next to, in éineacht le = together with, i ndáil le = with respect to ).
These do not require the genitive but take the case appropriate for the last preposition (in the examples: le)

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