Caibidil a Cúig: Prepositions (Réamhfhocail)

ar = on

Even though written as ar , the preposition is mostly spoken as [er'] (as if it were written as air)


ar requires the dative.

Initial Mutations


combined with personal pronouns

- general contrast form translation possessive pronoun translation
I orm ormsa on me ar mo on my
you ort ortsa on you ar do on your
he air airsean on him ar a / arna on his
she uirthi uirthise on her ar a / arna on her
we orainn orainne on us ar ár / arnár on our
you (pl.) oraibh oraibhse on you ar bhur on your
they orthu orthusan on them ar a / arna on their

The forms arna, arnár are only used in combination with the verbal noun ("afterwards") , otherwise ar a, ar ár is used
(arna appears also in the expression an lá arna mhárach = tomorrow )


  1. spatially on something (on top of: ar an mbord = on the table ), in something (cities: ar an mbaile)
  2. wearing clothing etc.: Tá , to put on clothing:,take off clothing : see de
  3. have tá
  4. attainment of such conditions, symptoms: = to get: Chuir sé fearg orm = he made me angry
  5. to affix , hold onto: ar teaghrán = on a noose, chain, ar srian = bridled
  6. price: for (an amount of money): ar phunt = for a pound, tá punt ar an t-ull = the apple costs a pound
  7. dimensions in: ar airde = in heighth, ar fad = in length
  8. participation /membership in: ar scoil = (to go) to school
  9. classificatory clause without the copula (part of a whole): tá sé ar na fir is mó = he is one of the biggest men
  10. identificatory clause without the copula
  11. must: tá ar...  Tá orm bainne a ól = I have to drink milk
  12. responsibility for: tá a báis ort = you're responsible for her death
  13. disadvantage: e.g. spóirt ag Cáit ar Seán = Cáit's fun at Seán's cost or: bhí sé ag briseadh fuinneogaí ort = he's broken your window
  14. indir. object after tá (= "have") tá ar...: e.g.: Tá buiochas agam ar Cháit.: I'm thankful to Cait, tá airgead agam ort = you owe me money("I have money on you "), tá grá agam ort = I love you ("I have love on you ")
  15. with verbs : iarr ar... = to ask someone, féach ar... = to look at something, tosaigh ar... = to begin, glaoigh ar... = to ring someone
  16. with definite nouns: feabhas ar... = an improvement in...
  17. similarity, to be like: ar dháth an róis = rose-coloured, ar dhéanamh báid = boat-shaped
  18. equality: fear ar d'ainm = a man of your name / who has the same name as you
  19. probability: tá baisteach air = it looks like rain, it will probably rain, tá cogadh air = there'll likely be a war
  20. within (as far as) ar amharc = in sight, ar éisteacht = within earshot
  21. ar meisce = drunk, ar buile = crazy, ar fheabhas = fabulous etc.
  22. activity by ( with the verbal noun): ar an obair = at work, working ( comp. dt. Partizip I)
  23. dependence on: ar arán =(to live) on bread , ar thoil (Dé) = depending on the will of (God)
  24. because , for : ar ghrá Dé = for the love of God, ar a thuarastal = for his pay
  25. result: on ar a iarratas = on his application
  26. by numbers: and: duine ar fhichid = 21 people (lit.: "one on twenty ")
    by arithmetic: divided by : a sé ar a trí sin a dó = 6 : 3 = 2
  27. up to/away from : thuas air = south of, ar aghaidh = forwards, amach ar an doras = out the door
  28. temporal around/at: ar maidin = in the morning, ar a dó a chlog = at 2 O'clock
  29. with verbal nouns: after: arna críochnú dom = after I had ended it (as a replacement of the old preposition iar)
  30. about something: scéal ar = a story about, ainm ar = a name for, cúis dlí ar = charges against
  31. authority over: rí ar Sasana = King of England
  32. advantage over: tá bliain agam air = I am one year older than him ("I have one year in advantage over him ").bhí deich nóiméad aige orm = he had a 10 minute head start on me
  33. with an adjective: santach ar = greedy for, maith ar = good for, etc.
  34. strengthening of the imperative: scríobh ort! = write! ( write already!, well, write!)

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