Caibidil a Dó Dhéag

the adverbs (na dobhriathra) 

word order
locational and directional adverbs
temporal adverbs
adverbs out of adjectives
adverbial pronouns
adverbs out of nouns
adverbs out of weekdays
adverbs out of numeral words
Interrogative adverbs (when, where, how) see interrogatives

Adverbs in Irish are unchangeable (no declension or conjugation).
Those adverbs derived from adjectives cam however be incremented (the form is the same as the adjective)

word order

The adverb comes mostly:

locational and directional adverbs (dobhriathra treo agus suímh)

Notice the common quartering, depending on a state of being (adverbs begin often with th-), a movement towards the speaker (s-) or a movement away from the speaker (an-) is occurring.
By expressing a relative location to anothern thing/person, adverbs can also begin with las-/lais- (laistigh, lastoir, etc). The point of reference is then inserted with de (lastuas den staighre = above the stairs, lastuaidh den tir = north of the country)
Instead, the forms with las- are also common as forms with the noun taobh: taobh thiar de = west of, taobh istigh de = within.
The difference between an- and s- is about the same as the German her- and hin-, but in other composition (anuas = down from above, síos = down below)

A following noun may be included (e.g. anuas an staighre = downstairs).
In this case, the adverbs are used as prepositions.
Additionally, one can use these adverbs as adjectives (an teach thuaidh = the northern house, an Pol Thuaidh = the North Pole).

A possibility of substantiation is prefixing an taobh: e.g. an taobh istigh = the inside, an taobh thuas = the upper, an taobh theas = the southern part

The compass (an compás)

northwest (of)
laistiar lastuaidh
      north (of)
      northeast (of)
lastoir lastuaidh
  in the Northwest
thiar thuaidh
    in the North
    in the Northeast
thoir thuaidh
aniar aduaidh
anoir aduaidh
      to the Northwest
siar ó thuaidh
to the North
ó thuaidh
to the Northeast
soir ó thuaidh
west (of)
in the West
to the West
+ to the East
in the East
east (of)
      to the Southwest
siar ó dheas
to the South
ó dheas
to the Southeast
soir ó dheas
aniar aneas
anoir aneas
  in the Southwest
thiar theas
    in the South
    in the Southeast
thoir theas
southwest (of)
laistiar laisteas
      south (of)
      southeast (of)
lastoir laisteas

The terms for West and East are much more often used in Irish than in English or German.
One doesn't just go "down" a street, no - one says the actual direction:
Tá mé ag dul siar an bóthar = I'm going down the road (to the West)
North and South in such sentences is often replaced by "up" (South) and "down" (North).
Tá mé ag dul síos an bóthar = I'm going down the road(to the North)

In Connacht (Cois Fhairrge) ó dheas and ó thuaidh apply independent of the direction(= from/to/in the South / North).
aduaidh and aneas are used in compound directions, independent of the direction:
e.g.: siar aduaidh = to the Northwese, thoir aneas = in the Southeast
Wind directions are generally termed as aneas, aduaidh : an gaoth aduaidh = northerly wind

Directions like "south-southwest" are formed similarly to those above, but as "southwest-south": theas thiar theas = in the south-southwest, aneas aniar aneas = from the south-southwest.

The noun forms of the directions differ greatly:
tuaisceart = North, deisceart = South,
oirthear = East, iarthar = West
oirdheisceart = Southeast, iardheisceart = Southwest
oirthuaisceart = Northeast, iarthuaisceart = Northwest

up and down

up (pos.) 
from above 
up (dir.) 
suas [ 1 ]
down (pos.) 
from below 
down (dir.)

up (thuas) is often said in place of in the South and down (thíos) in place of in the North.

Aside from noun phrases like an taobh thuas = the upside there are a few others: an t-íochtar = the lower, an t-Uachtar = the upper.

front and back

from the back 
to the back 

"back" and "in the West" are the same (thiar)
(In Ireland one has so to say the West always at your back, so one is always looking east, "ex oriente lux"). Following this logic, "East"(thoir) = "front". Which is correct, but is hardly used this way.
Instead, one uses mostly ar aghaidh, ar tosach and other expressions.

left and right

If one follows the aforementioned behind me is the West and in front of me the East, then right of me is South:

and it is so!:  rechts = deas (comp. ó dheas = in the South).
Links = clé doesn't quite fit in this picture, but (links = tuathal is at least in the dictionary, comp. ó thuaidh = in the North)

Deas and clé are adjectives, adverbially only as ar taobh deas/clé, ar taobh na láimhe deise/clé or ar dheis/clé (deis and clé as nouns in the sense of right/left hand, instead of ar, also other prepositions are used to indicate direction)
Clé kann auch einfach so adverbial verwendet werden.

Note the threefold meaning of deas (right, southern, nice)

here and there

over there 
from over there
out there (dir.) 
over here
- - this side(of)

in and out

in  isteach  inside  istigh  within laistigh
out amach [ 1 ] outside amuigh outside of lasmuigh

temporal adverbs (dobhriathra ama)

A small selection:

anois now ansin then
inniu today anocht tonight
inné yesterday aréir last evening
arú inné day before yesterday arú aréir the evening before last
amáireach tomorrow anuraidh last year
arú amáireach day after tomorrow arú anuraidh year before last

adverbs out of adjectives (dobhriathra aidiachtacha)

forming with the adverbial particle go:

form examples
go + adjective go maith, go cliste, go sciobtha
go + h+adjective (init. vowel) go hiontach, go hard

go is omitted mostly:

The adverbial particle go is identical to the preposition go.
If it is identical to go = to/until or with the today seldomly used go = with, there are conflicting sources; more likely is go = to/until, because no eclipsis follows. Also go mór = lit. approx.: "up to [a] large [degree]"

adverbial pronouns (forainmneacha dobhriathartha)

Adverbial pronouns are formed with the help of prepositions. In German e.g. darin, darauf, hierin, deswegen, etc.

with conjugable prepositions

Many prepositions are conjugated and form prepositional pronouns. The 3rd person singular masc. of these are used as adverbs.
(exception is idir = between. There one uses the 3rd person plural.)
e.g.: aige = with it(lit.: "by-him"), air = on it(lit.: "on-him"), ann = therein (lit.: "in-him"), eatarthu = between (lit.: "between-them")

Often a demonstrativ pronoun follows, especially if a stronger meaning is desired:
sin (= that, equiv. to the dt. prefix da-/dar-): air sin = on that, dó sin = to that, de sin = of that, ann sin = in that
seo (= this, equiv. to the dt. prefix hier-): air seo = on this, dó seo = to this, de seo = of this, ann seo = in this
siúd (= that there, equiv. to the dt. prefix there(dar)-): air siúd = on that there, dó siúd = thereto, de siúd = from there, ann siúd = in there

preposition  adverb Deutsch    preposition  adverb Deutsch
aige (sin)
at (that)
ann (sin)
in (that)
air (sin)
upon (that)
eatarthu (sin)
as (sin)
out of (that)
leis (sin) 
with (that)
chuige (sin)
towards (that)
uaidh (sin)
from (that)
de (sin)
of (that)
roimhe (sin)
before (that)
dó (sin)
to (that)
tríd (sin)
by means of (that)
fairis (sin)
beside (that)
thart (sin)
beneath (that)
faoi (sin)
under (that)
uime (sin)
around (that)

Fairis sin > freisin (lit. "besides that ") has an extended meaning of also (in Connacht).
In the meaning "also" there is also (in Munster) the word leis (lit.: "with that") and (in Ulster) fosta

A simple ann means "therein" also (more often) "there". It is used with the verb in the meaning "there is, there exists":
Tá teach ann = there is a house (lit.: "is a house in-it")
An bhfuil Dia ann? = Is there a God? (lit.: "is God in-it?")

Ann sin, ann seo, ann siúd are mostly written ansin, anseo, ansiúd and have the further meanings:
anseo = here < ann seo = "in-it this"
ansin = there < ann sin = "in-it that" (temporal also: then)
ansiúd = over there < ann siúd = "in-ti there"

The appropriate interrogatives are formed using cé, cad or (overview see there):
dó sin = to that, cé dó = why?
faoi sin = under that, cé faoi = under what?, etc.

with derived prepositions

Combined or derived prepositions connnect with nouns in the genitiv or with possessive pronouns.
The acquire an adverbial meaning through the connection with the possessive pronouns of the 3rd person masc. (often + sin/seo/siúd)


ar son because  ar a shon because of that "on its welfare"
de bharr result  dá bharr sin  as a result "from-its top of that"
i lár central  ina lár sin centrally "in-its middle that"
i ndiaidh after  ina dhiaidh sin afterwards "in-its after that"
le haghaidh for  lena aghaidh sin  supporting "with-its face that"

adverbs out of nouns

Remarkable many adverbs are derived from nouns. Often this took place with the help of the preposition i in the form of the modern prefixes a-, i-, an-, in-, is-, that due to their origin as prepositions, are always unstressed (is- = archaic for sa = in the )
The substantial origin is today hardly recognisable, aside from the constant emphasis on the 2nd syllable (the 1st syllable of the noun part).
Similar constructions are also to be found in German and English (often with the preposition zu, to) (comp. e.g.: engl. today, tomorrow, dt. zutage, zuhause).

Through a change in the (historical) dative to accusative forms (comp. istigh, isteach) word pairs with a shifted meaning occur (drinnen, herein).

inné = yesterdy < i ndé = "in a day"
inniu = today< i ndiu = "in a day"
amuigh = outside< i muigh (i maigh) = "in a field"
amach = out< i mach = "in a field"
istigh = inside< is tigh (sa tigh) = "in the house"
isteach = inside< is teach (sa teach) = "into the house"
amárach = tomorrow< i mbárach = "in a morning"
anuraidh = last year< i n-uraidh = "in last year"
anocht = tonight< i nocht = "in a night"

In adverbs, with the help of other prepositions, one can mostly still recognize the nouns: ar uaireanta = sometimes, etc.

adverbs out of weekdays

These adverbs are in German and English more used as normal nouns of time periods ("On Monday, I go to school"). The adverbs (Mondays = every Monday = gach Luan etc.) are nouns in Irish.

The adverbs are formed with (archaic for day). They are always written capitalized. (Déardaoin always keeps its Dé)

day English adverb English origin
Luan Monday Dé Luain (on) Monday lat. "dies lunae = day of the moon"
Máirt Tuesday Dé Máirt (on) Tuesday lat. "dies martis = day of Mars"
Céadaoin Wednesday Dé Céadaoin (on) Wednesday alt-ir. "first fasting"
Déardaoin Thursday Déardaoin (on) Thursday alt-ir. "day between the fastings"
Aoine Friday Dé hAoine (on) Friday alt-ir. "fasting" (lat. "dies jejunii")
Satharn Saturday Dé Sathairn (on) Saturday lat. "dies saturni = day of Saturn"
Domhnach Sunday Dé Domhnaigh (on) Sunday lat. "dies dominica = day of the Lord"

Usage, comp.:
an Luan = the Monday
Dé Luain = on Monday, this Monday
Dé Luain seo caite = last Monday
Dé Luain seo chugainn = next Monday
gach Luan = every Monday, Mondays
ó Luan go Satharn = von Monday bis Saturday

adjectives/adverbs out of numeral words

* -time(s) -times (math.) -fold
1 (aon) uair (amháin)   singil
2 dhá uair faoi dhó dúbailte
3 trí huaire faoi thrí tréaga
4 ceithre huaire faoi cheathair ceathairfhillte
5 cúig uaire faoi chúig cúigfhillte
6 sé huaire faoi shé séaga
7 seacht n-uaire faoi sheacht seachta
8 ocht n-uaire faoi ocht ochtfhillte
9 naoi n-uaire faoi naoi naoifhillte
10 deich n-uaire faoi dheich deichfhillte

The last column of the table ist only to be used as an adjective. Instead of tréaga, séaga, seachta also tréfhillte, séfhillte, seachtfhillte.
Further formations of similar adjectives with-chodach (ochtchodach = eightfold).

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[ 1 ]
suas and amach mean extended also: completely, fully
e.g.: Tá mé caite amach = I am completely out. Amach is amach = through and through